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WHAT IS DIABETES? ROLE OF DIET AND INSULIN

by admin - January 10th, 2011.
Filed under: Diabetes.

In a normal Person : The body’s fuel is glucose, which comes from the food we eat. All types of food can convert into glucose but carbohydrate (Cereals rice, flour, bread, table sugar etc.) are most easily converted and form rapidly available source of energy.
Food we eat, is rapidly converted into glucose or simple sugar at the end of digestion. Subsequently glucose leaves the intestine and enter into blood circulation through which it travels to the liver and all the tissues and cells.
Role of Insulin :
Insulin facilitates entry of glucose inside cells particularly in muscles where it is partly broken down and gives energy and partly stored in the form of glycogen for future use.
During the period of prolonged starvation and in between the meals, the body needs energy. Brain had to have 6 grams of glucose every hour. Insulin is a coordinator which ensures a constant fuel supply to the brain and other parts of our body.
During starvation : As the body’s sugar level falls, the level of insulin also falls which stimulates liver to produce and liberate some of its store of sugar and thus keeps the blood glucose concentration in normal range.
So, when insulin levels are low or non-existent, the liver becomes a factory, producing sugar. This process is precisely controlled. As soon as the blood sugar level rises again, the pancreas automatically produces insulin and  switches off the liver.
‘When insulin levels are low for any reason the body makes sugar’.
In a diabetic person diabetes develops when there is an absolute or relative lack of production of insulin from pancreas.
In a diabetic patient with deficiency of insulin (a) Glucose uptake by the tissue is reduced (b) Glucose production in the liver is increased thus net result is rise in blood glucose above the normal range
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